Karl Landsteiner


14 June 1868 – 26 June 1943

Place of study: 

University of Vienna, Austria

Famous for: 

  • Karl Landsteiner revolutionized medicine when, in 1900-1901, he identified three major human blood types: A, B, and O, which led to safe blood transfusions and millions of lives being saved. 
  • Later in his career, Landsteiner and his colleagues made another life-saving scientific breakthrough when they discovered the Rhesus factor in the blood. 
  • He is also credited with the discovery of the poliovirus.


 Aronson Prize for achievements in microbiology and immunology (1926)

 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1930)

Elected member, National Academy of Sciences (1932)

Dutch Red Cross Medal (1933)

Elected Honorary Foreign Member, Royal Society (1941)

Fun fact:

Landsteiner was an excellent pianist and a secret devotee of detective novels!